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    Edited once, last by Hanna Baster: Which type of legislation actions can help electric freight vehicles to compete with conventional vehicles, given the condition that the legislative action is objective - it doesn’t violate competition on the market? There can be considered 3 groups of legislative actions, each of them aiming at achieving different objectives. However, legislative actions included in all of the groups have one general objective: help electric freight vehicles to compete with conventional vehicles. 1st group: Legislative actions enabling solving problems associated with deployment of electric freight vehicles 2nd group: Legislative actions enabling solving problems associated with urban delivery activities through electric freight vehicles 3rd group: Legislative actions enabling illumination of benefits associated with deployment of electric freight vehicles Very important: not to prioritize any specific technology, such as electric vehicles, but base access to the regulatory incentives to all vehicles of reduced emission of pollution and noise. Further, incentives should be differentiated for specific vehicle technologies, based on the level of emission reduced. Last but not least, for each legislative incentive provided for vehicles of reduced emission, there must be a reasonable and clear for everyone link between the incentive provided and the benefit given in return by a vehicle. An example of a correct incentive: vehicles with reduced emission can access environmental zones, even though their payload is higher than restricted for accessing this zone. This incentive is correct, because vehicle’s weight limit for accessing environmental zones was established on the basis of assumption that vehicles bigger than the restricted size produce forbidden level of pollution. An example of an incorrect incentive: more parking places available for electric vehicles, even though they are not able to provide reduced congestion in the district, which was the reason to limit parking places.   RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SOLVING PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ELECTRIC VEHICLES..  Problem addressed: high purchase price. Action proposed: It is important to keep tax exemptions till the time of equalization of prices of alternative and conventionally fuelled vehicles (which is expected to happen no earlier than in 2020).  Problem addressed: higher range required.. Action proposed 1: Establishment of charging infrastructure in the new development areas. Action proposed 2: Traffic management system implementation can help to increase efficiency of fuel usage, this way extending the range of electric freight vehicles.  Problem addressed: Electric vehicle must be scratched, even if there was only a minor damage. It is due to legislation (more in section III). Action proposed: Changes in the legislation increasing cost of repair above which vehicle (with reduced emission) is not allowed to be repaired but must be demolished.  Problem addressed: It was too risky to drive one of electric vehicles, because the safety was not proved. It was not that the electric vehicle was risky to drive, but there was no proof that it is not risky to drive. Action proposed: Legislation regulating safety conditions under which an electric vehicle is allowed to be sold at the Danish market is required.  Problem addressed: Workshop workers might be not aware that it is a high voltage vehicle, and that therefore a different way of dealing with a vehicle is required. Today, electric vehicles are not registered as vehicles using high voltage, but they do are high voltage. This is also a problematic issue when it comes to repairs of electric vehicles. Action proposed: Special safety steps (training/spread of information among mechanics) must be undertaken in order to ensure security of working environment in the workshops. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SOLVING PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH URBAN DELIVERY ACTIVITIES WHICH CAN BE SUPPORTED WITH ELECTRIC VEHICLES  Problem: High labour cost, which is the main cost associated with urban deliveries. It is decreased when the delivery time of the individual vehicle drops or the number of shipments/vehicles required to deliver goods is decreased (keeping all the ordered goods delivered). Action proposed 1: Firstly, labour cost can be decreased if vehicles of reduced emission have an extended allowed delivery window; this way time of deliveries can decrease, because goods can be delivered outside the hours of the heaviest traffic. Action proposed 2: off peak delivery can also decrease time of deliveries, but this action is recommended only when bigger electric vehicles are available on the market.  Problem: Low accessibility of vehicles above 3.5 tonnes due to environmental zones. Action proposed: Vehicles of reduced emission could be allowed to drive in the environmental zone even if the GVW is above the restricted value, considering their low local impact on the local environment. This could be done by e.g. deduction of a battery’s weight from the GVW of the vehicle. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ENABLING THE BENEFITS ASSOCIATED WITH DEPLOYMENT OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES TO SURFACE  Problem addressed: Current legislation put too small focus on local environmental benefits coming with electric/alternatively fuelled vehicles. Action proposed 1: Strive to ensure that the national framework sets out a long-term tax structure favouring vehicles with reduced emissions and tighten regulations governing environmental zones. Action proposed 2: Thanks to policies of Copenhagen Municipality focused on decreasing number of passenger vehicles on roads, there will be more space on roads for commercial transport in the future. However, there will be increased technical requirements for commercial vehicles. These requirements can be an incentive to change to electric propulsion, since in this case additional vehicle connected cost must be borne anyway. Action proposed 3: Emphasize put on noise regulations can give an advantage to electric freight vehicles, since they produce lower noise levels. ().